Endocrine disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology.

Types of endocrine disease

Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:

  1. Endocrine gland hyposecretion (leading to hormone deficiency)
  2. Endocrine gland hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess)
  3. Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands
<p>Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone.

List of endocrine diseases

Adrenal disorders

  • Adrenal insufficiency
    • Addison's disease
    • Mineralocorticoid deficiency
      • Diabetes
  • Adrenal hormone excess
    • Conn's syndrome
    • Cushing's syndrome
    • Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism (GRA)
    • Pheochromocytoma
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome)
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma

Glucose homeostasis disorders

  • Diabetes mellitus
    • Type 1 Diabetes
    • Type 2 Diabetes
    • Gestational Diabetes
    • Mature Onset Diabetes of the Young
  • Hypoglycemia
    • Idiopathic hypoglycemia
    • Insulinoma
  • Glucagonoma

Thyroid disorders

  • Goiter
  • Hyperthyroidism
    • Graves-Basedow disease
    • Toxic multinodular goitre
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Thyroiditis
    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Thyroid hormone resistance

Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease

  • Parathyroid gland disorders
    • Primary hyperparathyroidism
    • Secondary hyperparathyroidism
    • Tertiary hyperparathyroidism
    • Hypoparathyroidism
      • Pseudohypoparathyroidism
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of bone)
  • Rickets and osteomalacia

Pituitary gland disorders

Posterior pituitary

  • Diabetes insipidus

Anterior pituitary

  • Hypopituitarism (or Panhypopituitarism)
  • Pituitary tumors
    • Pituitary adenomas
    • Prolactinoma (or Hyperprolactinemia)
    • Acromegaly, gigantism
    • Cushing's disease

Sex hormone disorders

  • Disorders of sex development or intersex disorders
    • Hermaphroditism
    • Gonadal dysgenesis
    • Androgen insensitivity syndromes
  • Hypogonadism (Gonadotropin deficiency)
    • Inherited (genetic and chromosomal) disorders
      • Kallmann syndrome
      • Klinefelter syndrome
      • Turner syndrome
    • Acquired disorders
      • Ovarian failure (also known as Premature Menopause)
      • Testicular failure
  • Disorders of Puberty
    • Delayed puberty
    • Precocious puberty
  • Menstrual function or fertility disorders
    • Amenorrhea
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome

Tumours of the endocrine glands not mentioned elsewhere

  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia
    • MEN type 1
    • MEN type 2a
    • MEN type 2b
  • Carcinoid syndrome

See also separate organs

  • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes
  • Incidentaloma - an unexpected finding on diagnostic imaging, often of endocrine glands

Endocrine emergencies

In endocrinology, medical emergencies include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, hypoglycemic coma, acute adrenocortical insufficiency, phaeochromocytoma crisis, hypercalcemic crisis, thyroid storm, myxoedema coma and pituitary apoplexy.

Emergencies arising from decompensated pheochromocytomas or parathyroid adenomas are sometimes referred for emergency resection when aggressive medical therapies fail to control the patient's state, however the surgical risks are significant, especially blood pressure lability and the possibility of cardiovascular collapse after resection (due to a brutal drop in respectively catecholamines and calcium, which must be compensated with gradual normalization). It remains debated when emergency surgery is appropriate as opposed to urgent or elective surgery after continued attempts to stabilize the patient, notably in view of newer and more efficient medications and protocols.


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